Tag Archives: uncg

Sexual Assault On Campus. Sexual Assault, Period.

by Erin Poythress

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I’ve been trying all day to find a way to talk about the announcement we all got in our boxes about the sexual assault on campus, and the words keep failing me. But this is exactly the kind of thing that needs to be talked about on college campuses (virtual or not), and because words matter, and this is a literature course,* it is perfectly appropriate to our learning goals to look closely at the words that went out to the whole UNCG community on a matter that I think we can all agree is terrible. So I decided that an imperfectly worded conversation is likely better than a perfectly crafted treatise days after the fact. I’m siding with it being more responsible to broach a tough topic than ignore it. Silence offers too much protection for perpetrators of sexual violence.

I’ll start with the easy stuff: I am saddened and outraged this happened in my community, even though this is merely the first campus-wide report, not the first on-campus assault. UNCG is my community, my intellectual home, and it is hard to fight the sense that this happened in my own house. As a member of the faculty, I feel responsible for my students, despite their age or life experience. I’m also concerned that the safety tips offered up were problematic at best, and at worst, part of the problem. I will get into that as we go.

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Here’s the email that went out from Campus Police, cut and pasted for reference:

TIMELY WARNING

September 10, 2014

On the evening of Wednesday, September 10, a UNCG Housing and Residence Life staff member received information that a university student was sexually assaulted by an acquaintance in a residential room in […] Residence Hall.

University officials outside of the police department know the identities of both parties and are proceeding with actions in accordance with university policies. The student has selected not to proceed with a criminal investigation at this time, and UNCG Police are respecting her decision to remain anonymous and are not investigating this incident.

In response to this incident, the UNCG Police are providing the following information on acquaintance sexual assaults. This information is general in nature and is not specifically related to this incident.***

It is estimated that nationwide one in every four to five college women will be the victim of a sexual assault or attempted sexual assault. The most common type of sexual assault is not a stranger but someone the victim knows, typically a date or acquaintance. To minimize your risk of being sexually assaulted by someone you know, it is critical to keep the following points in mind:

  • Alcohol and drugs are sometimes used to create vulnerability to sexual assault and may impair yours and your acquaintance’s judgment. Studies of sexual assault incidents show a high correlation between acquaintance rape and drug/alcohol usage. Keep control of your drink.

  • Always trust your instincts. If you feel uneasy or sense something is wrong, do what you can to get out of that situation.

  • If you engage in sex, be sure you understand your partner’s limits, and communicate your own limits clearly. Don’t engage in sexual activities without affirmative consent from your partner. For more information see http://sa.uncg.edu/dean/ sexual-misconduct/consent/.

  • Have a companion or a safe means of getting home, i.e., a trusted friend, taxi, public transportation, or Spartan Chariot, if available.

  • If you are sexually assaulted, you have several options; please see related information at this website:http://sa.uncg.edu/ handbook/wp-content/uploads/ assault.pdf . If you choose a police investigation of this crime, we will investigate, provide support, and offer related services.

  • Sex offenses are treated with the greatest seriousness on our campus; criminal and/or severe disciplinary action can be taken. If a criminal case is brought, we will support you as much as possible as you pursue it. In the case of disciplinary action, it is our university’s commitment that a victim shall be informed of the outcome of any institutional disciplinary proceeding brought alleging a sex offense.

UNCG Police offer Rape Aggression Defense courses as well as personal safety information at the following web address http://police.uncg.edu/ Programs/. UNCG Police recommend people walk in groups when possible and report crimes immediately by calling 336-334-4390 or 911. They also encourage people to use public transportation, Spartan Chariot, and other reliable transportation services and avoid situations or circumstances that may increase the risk to their personal safety.

This information is being released in accordance with the federal Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act. The Clery Act requires all colleges and universities that participate in federal financial aid programs to keep and disclose information about crime on and near their respective campuses, including timely warnings of crimes that may represent a threat to the safety of students or employees.

***(Safety tips were obtained from the the University of Iowa website on timely warning notification,http://tinyurl.com/k6yh56j).

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Let’s deconstruct that message…

Regarding the suggestions to “minimize your risk of being sexually assaulted by someone you know”I just need to talk about this with you for a moment, even though many of you don’t take any classes on campus, even though some of you don’t even live in the same state.  You do live in the same society, and acquaintance rape and sexual assault occur all over, so you need to be part of the conversation. I firmly believe that if you are not part of the solution to a problem, you are part of the problem. Since most of what we do in this class is take a close look at language, and unpack its denotation, connotation, innuendo, and implication, I want to do the exact same thing to these suggestions.

“One in every four to five college women will be the victim of a sexual assault or attempted sexual assault.”
This statement suggests that 1 in every 4 or 5 (20-25%) will be a victim of an assault or attempted assault. This leaves it open as to how many of these member of our community were actually assaulted and how many endured uncompleted attempts of assault. Don’t get me wrongan attempted assault is certainly traumatic, and erodes one’s sense of safety, but most of us would agree that it’s worse to be the victim of a completed sexual assault than to endure an unsuccessful attempt. The law also agrees, as the penalties are heavier for a completed assault than an attempted assault. Given that phrasing, someone might imagine many of those women in that 20-25% of the female population of college campuses all over the country survived attempts and not assaults. “Someone” would be wrong. One in five female college students, according to the White House, are victims of sexual assault. Period. The quoted phrase in the tips from the campus police may not technically be inaccurate, but in grouping assaults with attempted assaults, it can minimize the trauma these women experience, and allows the reader to imagine a less criminal, less traumatizing experience for the victim. (Note: I usually prefer to refer to sexual assault victims as “survivors,” but since the text in question can be interpreted to minimize the very harm itself, for now I’ve sticking with “victim.”)

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“To minimize your risk of being sexually assaulted by someone you know….
Here’s the thing. There is nothing anyone can do to reduce risk of harm to zero—no nail polish, no anti-rape underwear, no protective amulets, or mindreading glasses. Women are often advised not to drink in public, not to wear “racy” clothes, not behave in certain ways in public so that she is not a target for predators. But guess what? Predators predate. Most rapes are planned in advance. Rapists observe and then manipulate people they perceive as vulnerable to get what they want from them. So while I would never discourage a woman from taking steps to make herself feel safer, whatever that looks like, one may also be able to imply, when these well-meant suggestions are offered based on observations of commonalities in the circumstances of these crimes, that if she did not take these precautions then she either wanted to be sexually assaulted (or it wasn’t truly assault but a misunderstanding, which I will get to later) or deserved it somehow. There is no one in this world who deserves to be raped. No one. The idea that—instead of teaching people not to rape, and teaching people to recognize and intervene when they see signs someone may be targeting another person for sexual assault—targets of rape should alter all their behaviors and take all the responsibility for protecting themselves is backward. Again, it is easy to see how someone might turn that around on a victim and imply or even say outright that she should have known because she went to a frat party/got drunk/wore that dress. Law enforcement has said these things to women reporting rapes before. Just sit there a second and imagine how that feels, especially if you have already endured a rape examination (that link describes briefly what really happens– it is not a short or simple or painless exam). This is another case where focusing on a victim’s behavior allows us to avoid the questions about why that attack really happened, and the cultural currents that allow these attacks to take place.

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“Alcohol and drugs are sometimes used to create vulnerability to sexual assault and may impair yours and your acquaintance’s judgment.”
As a friend of mine once aptly put it: “A woman’s outfit may very well be an invitation. That does not make it an invitation for you.” This also applies to people getting drunk in public (after all, isn’t getting drunk all alone a warning sign of addiction?). There are many reasons it may not be a great idea for anyone to get highly intoxicated (Who likes throwing up? Weepy, humiliating public scenes, anyone?), but it is really important for me to point out that a woman out getting drunk is not necessarily interested in sex, and even if she is, any old partner likely does not do. And going out to have anonymous, consensual sex isn’t the same as going out to get raped, since rape is about power, not about sex. Let’s go back to that whole most-rapes-are-planned-in-advance thing. Seen through the lens of that fact, it’s easy to see that alcohol is a means to an end here—to lower inhibitions and confuse our instincts that might put us off a creep. Here’s an article to back up that alcohol is not the cause of male aggression, at least in terms of sexual assaults happening in bars.

no excuses kissing 500

That bit about it “impairing…your acquaintance’s judgment” suggests that the assailant did not realize he was raping someone, or that he would not have committed this act sober. This is a problematic assumption in the best of lights, and carries with it a whole lot of assumptions about gendered expectations around sexuality. The first thing I’ll say about it is that the notion that the victim and the assailant in this scenario could be on equal footing in terms of power and decision making is not consistent with the facts we know about acquaintance rape, since it is usually premeditated. It’s also highly insulting to someone who has been raped, because the implicit suggestion is that all she needed to do was communicate more clearly or have less drinks so she could do so. This blames the victim for what happened to her, and this is toxic for both that person’s healing as well as society, since it allows the rest of us to tell ourselves we’ll never drink that much/wear that dress/go off with someone we don’t know well/insert whatever makes you feel superior to that poor hapless girl, so we won’t be raped ourselves. That may help us sleep better, but it doesn’t make a dent in the crimes, and it allows us to focus on the victim’s behavior and not on the perpetrator’s, which only gives a predator cover. The implication that a person can always be free from sexual assault simply by being aware of his or her surroundings is the very root of victim blaming and rape culture (what’s that? Read this). The fact that rape happens everywhere to every demographic should illustrate that it is not an epidemic of drunk girls not walking home with friends.

alcoholisnotconsent

“Always trust your instincts…do what you can to get out of that situation.”
Of course, trust your instincts. But if your instincts are confounded by intoxicants and/or manipulation by someone who has singled you out, this is less simple than it appears. In situations where a sexual assault may be more likely (see that White House doc about the Red Zone), it’s great to have a buddy system and take other sensible precautions, but it is just as vitally important that everyone take responsibility for those around us when we see they can’t do it ourselves. Bystander education has been really driving down campus sexual assaults recently. Of course I am not saying that someone in this situation should not try to get away if they feel trapped. I think every woman alive has been there at some point, and I know some men have, too. But not getting away, or placing conditions upon what is considered a vigorous enough effort to escape an attack, further blames the victim for the attack. Even in a stone-cold-sober rape scenario, the adrenaline response, which is commonly called “fight or flight,” can also cause a person to freeze (think deer in headlights). Some people, in some situations, completely shut down in the face of extreme fear. I think we can all agree that shutting down in fear is not consent.

not-sex-car(crop)

“If you engage in sex, be sure you understand your partner’s limits, and communicate your own limits clearly. Don’t engage in sexual activities without affirmative consent.”
This is where I actually started yelling at the screen. This assumes that sexual assault has happened because of a failure to communicate, and in addition to going against established facts about sexual assault (again), it assumes that had the victim only said “no,” the attacker would have backed down. This also completely ignores the long-established position of the psychological community (and others) that rape is about power, not sex. Think about it. A regular, non-rapist human, in a sexual or turning-sexual situation with someone desirable, gets the “no” signal. Maybe their partner breaks away from the embrace, maybe the person says something that isn’t “no” but indicates they aren’t into it right then, like “Man, I really need to get to sleep.” A non-raping human might be disappointed or even angry—there might even be words about it (PS: this is a terrible idea, and in the history of human civilization, never has anything good happened right after those words, just FYI). But the difference between someone who rapes and someone who doesn’t is that a rapist may then decide that he (statistically, he is a dude, and I will get there, male readers) will get what he wants, no matter what his partner thinks about it. The rest of us, who make up the vast majority of society, do not want to be intimate with someone who doesn’t want to be intimate with us. Because we aren’t rapists. Rape is about power, not sex.

The next bullet point, about having a safe means of getting home, is more of the same. After all, using manipulation to isolate someone sets them up to not have a safe way out. This tip places the responsibility of remaining safe on the victim instead of instructing people not to rape, or better yet, to intervene.

rape-aggression-defense

“UNCG…Rape Aggression Defense course.”
I have no firsthand knowledge of this course, though I did follow the link to its description. I am all for people doing what makes them feel safe, and while I don’t know what they say over the twelve hours of instruction, I really hope one of them is that nothing reduces one’s risk to zero, and that if someone takes that class and then gets raped, it isn’t their fault. Because remember—rape is usually planned, and rape is committed by people who don’t believe that “no means no” applies to them. If taking any kind of self-defense class makes someone feel empowered—great! That just might make them less vulnerable to attack down the road, or better at stopping it. But it also might not, and as I’m sure you’re tired of hearing, you can imagine how awful it would be to hear that you kind of asked to be sexually assaulted because you didn’t take such a course in self defense. This places the burden of responsibility on people (mostly women) not to be raped, instead of teaching (mostly) men not to rape.

By now you are probably trying to figure out, after all this dissection of what troubles me about the tips in this email, what I think we should be saying and doing.

1. Don’t rape.

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The next should come as no surprise by now:

2.It is never the victim’s fault. The first step to transitioning from victim to survivor is having the support from family, friends, and the university community (if it happened on campus), starting with telling the person that nothing they did occasioned the attack. And then seeking to resolve the case as the survivor wishes. I am a part of the UNCG community. The idea that someone among us is harming us is very, very difficult for me to live with. I’d prefer the assailant, if determined guilty by the justice system, be as far from our red bricks as possible, because many offenders repeat. I feel like someone has harmed a member of my family because they have. But it isn’t my place to tell any survivor how to proceed, even if I want our world safer.

SVU(edit)

3. We have to change the culture around these issues. That is a much bigger issue, because it involves social conditioning that happens all our lives. That is too big for any university or all of them together to be expected to tackle all by itself since students arrive as adults. But that doesn’t mean we just accept this sorry status quo. As I mentioned above, bystander awareness campaigns have been very successful on many college campuses. In addition to talking through some of the more contentious consent issues (some college students don’t know someone can be too intoxicated to consent to sex at all, for example), the value of peer groups has also been recognized in research as critical to helping curb sexual violence on campus. Everyone cares what their friends think of them, even people at risk for committing sexual assault. So with specific training and awareness programs, students learn ways to safely intervene when they notice, for example, someone, usually a girl, suddenly quite drunk, cornered by someone, usually a guy, and looking uncomfortable. They help the would-be assailant want to identify as and be accepted as a man who respects women and doesn’t let other men act that way, either. Many of you have probably done that before without even realizing you were participating in bystander intervention because trying to keep your friends out of harm’s way is also part of being a good friend, and that includes a playful “Dude, she is not into you,” and a firm steering to the other side of the bar. Will that stop all rapes on campus? Sadly, no. But it starts to change the conversation. It starts to question the paradigm that allows sexual assault to happen.

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I promised I’d talk a little more about the gendered stuff. By now, I’d bet there is at least one reader squirming, maybe male, maybe even feeling possibly judged. Assuming you are not one of the 3% of men who has committed sexual assault, I am not pointing at you when I talk about rapists. I don’t believe for a second that all men would rape given the chance, and my belief is backed up by the stats. Three percent is not a lot of people, but one in five women have been affected by them, and one out of 16 men have, too. That is a lot of collateral damage. If “See Something, Say Something” is good enough for a counter-terrorism campaign, then maybe it should be good enough for a sexual-assault awareness campaign. If it threatens your safety to intervene, call 911, of course. I want all my students and their kids and grandkids to live a long, happy life, wherever they are, so don’t go getting yourself hurt. But if you see a situation in which a person (usually a girl, but not always) looks uncomfortable and stuck or too intoxicated to know what is going on, and you see one or more people acting a little too interested, go talk to her. About anything. Maybe you’ll find you misinterpreted the cues, and everything is okay. Maybe, though, you’ll find a way to breed disinterest in the ne’er-do-wells, and she’ll be grateful. Or she will be too drunk to get it and won’t even be grateful, but it won’t matter because you still did the right thing. Take it from a teacher: if doing the right thing were only about the unwavering gratitude we got in return, we’d give it up and never look back.

___

* Ms. Poythress originally wrote this to send out to her BLS 321 class.

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Editor’s note: UNCG Campus Police has been receptive to criticism of that email text from the campus community, and has taken steps to update that information. UNCG also has a bystander-awareness campaign beginning this month.

UNCG Sexual Violence Campus Advocacy page

 Some suggestions for further reading

hobartReporting Rape, and Wishing She Hadn’t
How One College Handled a Sexual Assault Complaint

Obama College Sexual AssaultsEnding College Sexual Assault
Can Obama’s new campaign bring change?

BLS Student Featured on UNCG Home Page

by Jay Parr

Nargiza Kiger featured on the UNCG home page. Photo: Brian Kiger

Nargiza Kiger featured on the UNCG home page.

I generally like to keep this blog about things other than the BLS Program, lest we be accused of navel-gazing. This is going to be one of those exceptions.

If you open the UNCG Home Page in the next two weeks, the first thing you’re going to see is our very own BLS student Nargiza Kiger smiling at you from a field in West Africa. Though she’s technically an in-state student (she and her husband live here in the Triad), I know of no other student who brings a more international perspective to the BLS Program. A native of Uzbekistan in central Asia, where relatively few women manage to achieve higher education, Nargiza traveled to neighboring Kyrgyzstan to attend a university. It was there that she met her husband Brian, and after finishing her Associate of Arts at Forsyth Tech, she had to reconcile her desire to continue her own education with Brian’s career in international development. The BLS Program allowed her to do just that, continuing her education at an American university while stationed with him in Nigeria and then in Ghana. She’s on track to graduate in December.

Nargiza greeting an elephant in Ghana.

Nargiza greeting an elephant in Ghana.

Nargiza came to my attention last fall, shortly after she had moved to Ghana (one downside of my mostly-administrative role is that I’m not as in touch with all our students as I was when I was their academic advisor). I think it may have been infrastructure issues—unreliable power and internet connections—that brought her to my attention. Always on the lookout for BLS students who lead interesting lives, I asked her if she would be interested in writing a post for our blog. Given her history, which you can read in her cover story, I expected her to write about her own experiences. Boy, did she ever turn that on its head.

The post she gave me starts out on the frustrations of being an online student in an African city with tentative infrastructure—with the nerve-wracking image of taking an online test with a glitchy internet connection and having the power go out (yet again) in the middle of it. But then, after getting the reader sucked into her frustrating circumstances, she immediately turns around and points out that in Ghana, she is the privileged one. In a country with a per-capita income of roughly $2.00 a day, where education beyond 9th grade costs real money, and where placement into professional programs is rife with corruption, she can afford tuition at an American institution that costs more than most of her neighbors will make in a year. And yet, despite all these challenges—her own and others’—the post she gave me is ultimately the inspirational story of a security guard who is paying for his siblings to go to school, and who aspires to become a nurse so he can help others.

Ibrahim and Nargiza under the mango tree where Ibrahim likes to read.

Nargiza and Ibrahim, the security guard.

I feel like our little online program is all grown up, out there on the front page of the university’s website. And I can’t think of many people to better represent us than Nargiza, wearing her UNCG colors in Tamale, Ghana, and constantly doing the little things she can do to make the world a better place.

The First Day of School

by Matt McKinnon

Well, it ain’t what it used to be.  The first day of school, I mean.

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And I don’t just mean the back-to-school shopping, though that has changed a lot, to be sure.

We did most of ours online this year, since navigating Walmart.com is a LOT more appealing than navigating an actual Walmart.

And since many public schools have gone to uniforms, there’s not really much fun in back-to-school clothing shopping with the kids:

“How about the khaki pants and red polo shirt?”

“No, I won’t be caught dead in those.”

“Okay, then there’s always the red polo shirt and khaki pants.”

McKinnon Boys on First Day of School

Gone are the days, at least for those of us in uniform schools, where back-to-school shopping was a creative endeavor to get the coolest outfits possible, actually enjoying the prospect of new clothes.

Toughskins jeans.  Converse Chuck Taylor hightops (later surpassed by real leather offerings from Addidas and Nike).  Cool football jerseys.  A new jean jacket.

Toughskins

Man, those were the days.

And it didn’t cost $250.00 to fully outfit two kids for the entire school year.  (Or at least until they get stains all over their shirts and wear holes in the knees of their pants.  Do kids not wear patches on pants anymore?)

And picking out your clothes for the first day of school was just as exciting, and became even more important the older you got.  After all, I had to make a nice impression on those 10-year old girls I was not going to talk to.  Or even look at.

But now the shopping carts are virtual and the clothing is all the same: red polo shirts and khaki pants.  Maybe shorts.  If you’re feeling crazy…navy blue.

Of course, school supply shopping is still best done at an actual store, especially since the local Walmart and OfficeMax and Staples all have lists sent to them by the school district and even the local schools.  And then there’s the additional list that the teacher sends out.

Back to School SuppliesThe cumulative effect of all this is that there are three lists for each of our two elementary-age kids that my wife and I have to carry around with a real shopping cart (the one with the wheel that won’t swivel right), juggling from one list to the other, trying to mark off what we have while we search for what we still need, all the while trying unsuccessfully to keep items not on the list out of the basket.  (How we ended up with a “Duck Dynasty” pillow in the cart I will never know.)

Not to mention that our high school junior is too cool even to shop with everybody else, so we had to make a special late-night black-ops trip, just he and I, outfitted in dark clothing and sunglasses, so no one he knows will see him…with his dad…shopping at Walmart of all places.

And not to mention that the entire school supply deal set us back about $150.00.  A hundred and fifty dollars?!  For notebooks and paper and pencils?

Yes.  And pens, and erasers, and binders in every size and color imaginable.  And glue and glue sticks.  And highlighters, and rulers, and note cards, and composition books.  And more binders.  And pencil boxes, no wait, they have to be bags with three holes to fit in the binder.  And lunch boxes.  And Clorox Wipes and Kleenex (are those really our responsibility?  Whatever happened to that green stuff the janitor would just spread around on the floor when some kid threw up?)  And we still can’t find any graph paper.  Does Walmart have something against graph paper?  Are American kids just not expected to plot graphs anymore?  No wonder we’re falling behind the rest of the developed world.  I bet they have graph paper in Sweden.

But I digress.

I’m not talking about any of that.

No, what I mean when I say that the first day of school ain’t what it used to be is that, as someone who taught mainly face-to-face classes for years but who now teaches entirely online, the first day of school just isn’t quite the same.

Now, don’t get me wrong: I am NOT complaining.

Just observing.  (I tell my wife this all the time.)

First Day of Class

There used to be a nervous energy about the first day of class—when that meant standing in front of a theatre-size room of 100 students or so.  There was electricity in seeing the fresh faces of students experiencing their very first day of college, or even in the nonchalant smoothness of seniors who had waited until the very last moment to complete their GEC credit.

There was magic in the anticipation of how hard the course might be, or how boring the professor was, or how anything I was saying would have any bearing on anyone’s intended career.

I used to enjoy coming up with new ways to start the first day: by proclaiming to the class, for example, that the only thing I hated more than the first day of class was…the next day of class.  Or by moving everybody outside to enjoy the weather.  Or even sitting at a desk like everybody else: just sitting, waiting, and watching as the time for class to start came and went, and still no teacher.  And then getting up abruptly, as if annoyed, audibly mumbling something to the effect that if nobody else is going to teach the damn course, then I might as well.

Yes, those were the days.

But those days are gone.

And again, don’t get me wrong: I am not complaining.  Only observing.

I love teaching online, and have come to see what we do in the BLS program as not just a service to the University, but more importantly, as a service to students—some of whom may not be able to take classes or finish their degree any other way.

And my students, overall, tend to be older, more mature, more driven, and actually interested in what is being taught.

And there is certainly energy and magic in the first day, though clicking on a link to make the course available doesn’t quite compare to bounding around a lecture hall like Phil Donahue in his prime.

No; it’s just not quite the same.

Even though this year I tried.

Fresh Shave and a Haircut

I got a haircut.  I took a shower.  Heck, I even shaved, and thought about adding some color to my graying beard before deciding against it.

And then I sat down, clicked on “Make Course Available,” and…

Well, nothing happened.  At least nothing spectacular.

For that, I’ll have to wait for the next 48 days—or however many are in this first session.

But of course, it’s not that bad…

After all, other than strippers, “escorts,” and the occasional politician, who else do you know can go to work not wearing pants?

Comforts of Home

Yes, there’s something to be said for the comforts of home.

Making Magic on Broadway

By Marc Williams

The Tony Awards are Broadway theatre’s version of an Oscar, recognizing the highest levels of achievement in commercial theatre. This year’s nominees include a revival of Pippin, a musical that premiered on Broadway in 1972 and hasn’t been seen on Broadway since that original production.

Pippin poster

Pippin was conceived by composer and lyricist Stephen Schwartz, who is best known Godspell and, more recently, the Broadway mega-hit Wicked. Schwartz began working on Pippin as an undergraduate at Carnegie Mellon University and after achieving a seemingly overnight success with Godspell in 1971, the 23-year old Schwartz and his collaborator, Roger O. Hirson, were able to find a producer willing to put Pippin on Broadway.

Like Schwartz’ earlier hit Godspell, Pippin had great popular appeal. The scores to these musicals contain pop/rock songs that became crossover hits on top-40 radio. The original Off-Broadway cast recording of Godspell’sDay By Day” climbed to the #13 position on the Billboard Top Singles chart, while songs from Pippin were recorded by the Jackson 5, Michael Jackson (solo), the Supremes, and Petula Clark and Dusty Springfield. On stage, Pippin was a bona fide Broadway hit, running over 1900 performances–one of the longest runs in Broadway history. An interesting side note to Pippin’s successful run was its very effective marketing campaign; Pippin was the first Broadway musical to use clips from the production on a television advertisement. The famous “Manson Trio” dance number was featured in this minute-long television commercial that is credited for generating much of the musical’s early ticket sales (pardon the water mark):

Ben Vereen as the Leading Player in Bob Fosse’s 1972 production of Pippin.

While Pippin enjoyed popular success, the script and score were not embraced by the influential New York critics. In his New York Times review, Clive Barnes called Pippin a “trite and uninteresting story with aspirations to a seriousness it never for one moment fulfills.” He similarly wrote of Schwartz’s score, “It is a commonplace set to rock music, and I must say I found most of music somewhat characterless.” However, Barnes praised the production as a whole, noting its inventive staging and choreography, the work of the stage designers, and the triumphant performance by Ben Vereen as the Leading Player.

Bob Fosse.

Barnes and other critics took notice of Bob Fosse’s work in particular, which deemphasized the script’s naïve and passive title character and focused on the dark, dangerous agenda of the musical’s ringmaster, Vereen’s Leading Player.

Stephen Schwartz.

Rather than Schwartz’ story of a young man’s search for fulfillment, Fosse viewed Pippin’s plot as the story of a young man being seduced into self-destruction. In an effort to support the theme of seduction, the production visually evoked burlesque and carnival performance, highlighting themes of sexual exploration and discovery. The 24-year old Schwartz, whose musical influences were more James Taylor and less Jimi Hendrix, perhaps had not imagined his musical with such a seedy underbelly and as a result, the rehearsals for Pippin were famously contentious, with Fosse, Schwartz, and Hirson battling for control of the production’s tone. Eventually, Fosse banned Schwartz and Hirson from attending rehearsals!

Some criticism of Schwartz and Hirson’s work is warranted. The story is fragmented and the central action unclear. The musical’s original ending is among the most jarring and dissatisfying endings one is likely to find in a musical. Structurally, Pippin is incomplete and any production of Pippin seems to require additional directorial focus in order to hold the entire script and score together into a cohesive evening of theatre. Fosse seemingly knew this, and his work earned him a Tony Award in 1973 for Best Director of a Musical; Fosse also won a Tony Award for his iconic Pippin choreography.

Diane Paulus

Forty years after Fosse’s original production, a new production opened on Broadway April 25, 2013. Directed by Diane Paulus, the new production has been called a “natural extension” of Fosse’s, a Pippin for a 21st century audience. If Fosse’s production was suggestive, Paulus’ production seems to opt for excess. Fosse’s dancing ensemble, for instance, was conceived as a group of traveling burlesque clowns. Paulus’ vision for these traveling players is less burlesque, more Cirque du Soleil. In fact, Paulus’ production employs a troupe of Canadian acrobats that creates a sense of grand spectacle throughout the show. If Fosse’s production is a story of seduction, Paulus’ production seems a story of astonishment. Here is a glimpse of Paulus’ new production:

Much has changed on Broadway since Fosse’s Pippin opened in 1972. The 1980’s was an era of musical spectacles, lavish musicals like Cats, The Phantom of the Opera, Les Miserables, and Miss Saigon that boasted some of the most eye-popping visual effects ever seen on stage. More recent musicals like Wicked and

Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark on Broadway.

Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark have continued that tradition into the 21st century. In my BLS course, Eye Appeal: Spectacle on Stage and in Life, we discuss musical spectacles and how 21st century audiences have come to expect a certain degree of “eye appeal” at a Broadway musical. With many of these musical spectacles, the stage designs are frankly more impressive than the scripts the designs are attempting to support. Some of these productions could be called “style without substance,” in spite of their commercial success. In the case of Paulus’ Pippin, it seems the director is using the fad of musical spectacles not to distract from the script’s flaws but rather to enhance the script’s central action and deliver a story about amazement to an audience that demands to be amazed. Given the positive reviews and ten Tony Award nominations Paulus’ production received, one wonders if Pippin is poised to be a Broadway hit yet again.

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An interesting “Making of…” feature published on the New York Times’ website, demonstrating how Paulus and her collaborators conceptualized Pippin’s famous opening number, “Magic to Do.”

SECAC Art Conference: Coming to Greensboro in 2013

by Ann Millett-Gallant

SECACSECAC, the Southeast College Art Conference, was founded as a regional arts organization in 1942 and now hosts an annual, national conference for artists, art educators and scholars, and art museum professionals.

The organization also publishes The SECAC Review, presents awards for excellence in teaching, museum exhibitions, and artist works, and posts opportunities and jobs for art professionals.  I have attended and presented at numerous SECAC conferences in the past, in Little Rock, AR, Norfolk, VA, Columbia, SC, and Savannah, GA.  The 2012 conference was held in my hometown, Durham, NC and sponsored by Meredith College.  Conference panels are proposed and selected by panel chairs, and this year, I chaired a panel titled “Disability and Performance: Bodies on Display.”  This topic is central to my research and especially my book, The Disabled Body in Contemporary Art.

millett-gallant_book

The Disabled Body in Contemporary Art

My panelists gave presentations on independent films; the canonical painting by Thomas Eakins, “The Gross Clinic,” 1875, and comparable images of disabled war veterans; and the collection of freak show photographs in the Barnum Museum in Bridgeport, CN.  This was my second experience chairing a panel on disability and disability studies at a SECAC conference, topics that are still somewhat new for art historians and professionals.  The panel went well and sparked much interest and lively conversation.

I also attended a panel on Doppelgangers, or images of doubles or identical pairs, which engaged art historical examples from diverse contexts and time periods, as well as a panel on self-taught, or outsider artists.  This latter panel was of special interest to me, because my good friend from graduate school at UNC Chapel Hill, Leisa Rundquist, presented a paper on the work of Henry Darger (the link is to works by Darger in the Folk Art Museum, whose administration and education employees hosted the panel).  Leisa is now a professor of art history of UNC Asheville, so the conference was also a chance to see her.  I especially enjoy SECAC conferences, because I see a lot of old friends and usually meet new and like-minded people.

Thomas Eakins, “The Gross Clinic,” 1875

Thomas Eakins, “The Gross Clinic,” 1875

I didn’t attend as much of the conference as I usually do, ironically, because it was too close to home.  On the day before my presentation, my refrigerator broke, so I returned home right after the panel to wait for a new refrigerator to arrive.  I attended two panels the next day and caught up with friends over glasses of wine at the bar.  I didn’t participate in any of the organized tours of local museums and art venues, as I can see them whenever I want.  It was nice not to have to pack for and travel to the conference, especially in light of how stressful and expensive flying has become, but there is something nice about going to conferences out of town, staying at the conference hotel, and immersing yourself in the atmosphere and activities.

This Fall, the conference will be held in Greensboro, NC, so hopefully I will see many of my colleagues from UNCG and the Weatherspoon Art Museum there, as well as, perhaps, my students.  I will be chairing a panel titled “Photographing the Body.”

Choose Your Own Adventure

By Carrie Levesque

Recently in the Russian Novel of Conscience course we have been discussing Yevgeny Zamyatin’s 1921 dystopian novel We, about a highly mechanized and regimented totalitarian society (the One State) hundreds of years in the future where citizens have achieved the ultimate happiness: unfreedom.  Taking as our starting point Marx’s claim that machines, invented to help man, have become the symbols of his servitude, we debate the extent to which machines and technology have enslaved or liberated men in today’s world.

As a class, we’ve compiled a pretty good list of technology’s benefits (efficiency, convenience, online degree programs!) and costs (myriad media addictions, a privileging of online relationships at the expense of face-to-face ones).  At midterm, several students have written excellent papers on how we have created a sort of One State within the United States through certain government policies and technologies which reduce rather than foster our individuality and humanity.

Many of these discussions have stirred up nostalgia for simpler times, when it seems people had different values and a different relationship to one another.  They’ve made me think about a book I read recently on a more extreme response to this question, the Back to the land movement (which is a great deal more complex than just ‘living simply,’ but I’m limited to 800 words…).

I grew up in a remote area of northern Maine that has always attracted Back-to-the-landers.  What possesses these diehards who apparently find the southern Maine homesteads of the followers of Scott and Helen Nearing not austere or isolated enough, that they would haul their few remaining possessions to the place where the logging roads end and call it home, I can’t say for sure.

But I’ll admit to having a touch of that idealism myself- to unplug, to live off the land, to disconnect from our nonstop media and rampant consumerism of all the latest technology (though you’d have to be insane to choose the wilds of northern Maine, a place with two seasons: Brutal Winter and Rainy Black Fly Infestation).  Though I now prefer a more comfortable climate, I understand the appeal of living in a beautiful, natural setting, devoting most of one’s time to work in the outdoors without a care for whatever new technology or entertainment the rest of the world is enthralled with.

Coleman Family

And yet, through a closer examination of life ‘off the grid,’ I’ve also come to a greater appreciation of many benefits of our modern life. I recently read Melissa Coleman’s memoir This Life Is In Your Hands about growing up the daughter of famous homesteader and Nearing mentee Eliot Coleman. She chronicles the great strain that the demands of homesteading put on her family, resulting in her father’s ill health, her baby sister’s tragic death and her parents’ divorce.  (On a lighter note, she also reveals some of the purist Nearings’ well-kept secrets: Helen’s love of ice cream, mail order fruit and other delicacies.  Even the folks who wrote the (sometimes a tad righteous) book on living local and off the grid indulged a little on occasion).  Though there were certainly aspects of their lives on the homestead that were richly satisfying, some readers may come away wondering if their chosen cure for the ills of modern life wasn’t in some ways as harmful as the disease, physically as well as spiritually.

Another interesting look at the real-life struggles of those who lived in those idealized ‘simpler times’ is the PBS reality series Frontier House.   In 2001, three families (selected from among some 5,000 applicants!) lived off the land for six months on the simulated frontier of 1880s Montana.  The success of their venture was assessed by historians based on whether each family had put by enough food and fuel over the summer and fall to survive a Montana winter.  Though they labored admirably, through all sorts of drama, if memory serves it was decided all would have perished.  The simpler times were never as simple as they seem.   (Frontier House is available in UNCG’s Instructional Film Collection, but sadly, not on Netflix).

There are no easy answers to the question of man’s relationship to technology.  Most people I know lament their dependency on smart phones, social media and a food supply so highly engineered that many of us have no idea what we’re really eating half the time (pink slime, anyone?).   Yet we have so much to be grateful for.  We live in a time of amazing medical advances.  Whatever may plague or disappoint us in our lives, we have the freedom and resources at our fingertips to research alternatives and connect with like-minded people to find a solution.  For all our similarities, thankfully these United States are not the One State.  Our ultimate happiness is not to be found in our unfreedom, but in our freedom to negotiate these complex choices and relationships, to choose our own adventure.

Enrichment Online: The Bachelor of Arts in Liberal Studies at UNCG

By Tyler Steelman (BLS Class of 2012)

Facing the completion of my Associates in Arts in English, I was quite undecided on how I would continue my college career after leaving the community college I entered after high school.  Thanks to her wisdom and insight into my interests and character, my college adviser there introduced me to the BLS program at UNCG.

I have always had a deep interest in the fields described as humanities: literature, art, history, philosophy, and religion.  Thus, the BLS program was a great way to formally study subjects I have always loved.  The online learning environment was also a major factor in my choosing the BLS program.  Having completed my associate’s degree online, I had grown comfortable with the freedom and flexibility of online courses, so I knew I would be successful in the BLS program.  Furthermore, UNCG’s low tuition rates make it quite an affordable way to further your education.

While my focus in the program was on literature, to my delight I have been able to delve into the other branches of the humanities as well.  One of my favorite courses during my time in the program was Magic, Media, and Popular Imagination with Dr. Emily Edwards.  In this course we examined the effect the supernatural has had on popular media.  We watched several films with supernatural themes which we discussed in discussion forums.  For the final project we created a visual narrative blog, where we used photographs and narration to create a documentary or creative piece.  It was interesting to learn how profound an influence the occult has had on popular media, and the visual narrative project was an enjoyable experience.  To view my visual narrative project, click here.

In my time in the BLS program, I have been fortunate to also take three courses with Dr. Carrie Levesque.  In American Motherhood, I studied how the role of motherhood is perceived by our society and the different ethnicities and sub-cultures that it contains.  For that course I created a blog examining how motherhood is represented in popular media.  I also took Religious Resistance to Political Power, where I examined how various religions responded to oppressive measures by governments.  In Women, War, and Terror, we read three memoirs written by women during times of war, violence, and social upheaval.  Dr. Levesque is a very insightful instructor who provides a warm and informal atmosphere to discuss these often challenging and distressing issues.

Finally, I have also been able to explore the world of drama and theater with Professor Marc Williams.  In Big Plays, Big Ideas, I read numerous plays, analyzing how they portrayed various issues pertaining to society and the human condition.  In Eye Appeal, I learned how spectacle (costuming, lighting, set design, music, etc.) adds to or affects dramatic productions.  I wrote a review of a theatrical performance I attended, detailing how spectacle was utilized.  Professor Williams offers wonderful critiques on assignments that not only advise you on how to be a better student in that course, but also on how to be a better writer.

I am not the typical BLS student, as the program is geared to working adults and I am a full-time student who just graduated high school four years ago.  Thus, I do not have as much life experience as most students in the program.  However, the BLS program has in a sense opened up the world for me.  I have learned more about the various cultures, beliefs, conflicts, and arts that characterize humanity in the two years I have been in the BLS program than I believe most people my age or perhaps any age have.  I am confident that the insights about the human condition I have acquired in the BLS program will be invaluable in whatever direction life takes me.  I will be graduating with honors in May, and I am hoping to continue my liberal arts education at UNCG next fall with the Master of Arts in Liberal Studies program.  If you want a quality liberal arts education that not only gives you freedom and flexibility but also enriches the way you see humanity and the world, I highly recommend looking into the BLS program at UNCG.